Health Fitness Facts-Tonsillitis Symptoms,Treatment,Causes,Remedies,Pain Relief

What is Tonsillitis?

Tonsillitis is an infection and swelling of the tonsils which are oval-shaped lymph nodes located in the back of the mouth and the upper part of the throat. Our body has two sets of tonsils. One pair can be seen at the back of the throat. These are called the palatine or faucial tonsils. The other pair is at the back of the tongue and is called lingual tonsils. Also part of the same group of lymph nodes are the adenoids, which are situated behind the nose, and above the throat. Their main function is to filter out bacteria and other microorganisms. Tonsillitis commonly means the inflammation or infection of the palatine tonsils. However, sometimes the infection can involve the lingual tonsils and other lymph nodes in the back of the throat, especially the adenoids. The infection may also be present in the throat and surrounding areas, causing pharyngitis (infection of the pharynx).

Tonsillitis Causes :-

Tonsillitis is most commonly caused by a bacterial infection, mainly due to the Streptococcus, Pneumococcus and Haemophilus bacteria. Viruses such as the Adenovirus and Epstein-Barr virus may also cause tonsillitis. The infection spreads by:

(1) Coming in close contact with someone who has tonsillar or pharyngeal infection with the above organisms.

(2) Having a sore throat that develops into tonsillitis

(3) Sharing utensils or toothbrushes with people infected by or carrying streptococcal bacteria or the Epstein-Barr virus.

Tonsillitis Symptoms :-

Tonsillitis may be acute, sub-acute and chronic. Symptoms for acute tonsillitis include:

(1) Rapid onset of a severe sore throat that worsens over time

(2) Moderate to high fever

(3) Difficulty and pain in swallowing

(4) Red and enlarged tonsils that may or may not have pus

(5) Swollen or tender lymph nodes below the jaw

(6) Hoarseness or loss of voice may or may not be there.

Symptoms for sub-acute tonsillitis can last from 3 weeks to 3 months and include:

(a) Enlarged tonsils

(b) Foul smelling, pasty, infected material that collects within the pits on the tonsils

(c) Sore throat

(d) Bad breath

(e) Mildly swollen, tender lymph nodes

(f) Previous history of acute sore throat which has not been adequately treated by antibiotics and some pain has persisted.

Symptoms for chronic tonsillitis include:

(1) Enlarged and mildly red tonsils that are scarred with large pits

(2) Slightly enlarged lymph node that is not usually tender

(3) Sore throat off and on

Tonsillitis Diagnosis :-

The diagnosis is based on the symptoms and a physical examination of the patient. The tonsils are usually reddened and may have white spots on them. The lymph nodes of the jaw and neck may be enlarged and tender to the touch. A careful examination of the throat is necessary to rule out diphtheria and other conditions that may cause a sore throat.

A culture of the tonsils may show bacterial infection. A culture for the streptococcus bacteria may also be taken. A blood test may also be done to rule out a more serious condition or infection, and to check the white blood cell count. In some case, the doctor may ask for blood tests for glandular fever or mononucleosis, since most patients with mononucleosis develop streptococcal infections of the tonsils.

Tonsillitis Treatment :-

The treatment depends on the cause of the infection. Mostly, tonsillitis is caused by viruses and so antibiotics are ineffective. However, often a viral tonsillitis may lower the resistance, and be secondarily infected by bacteria. In these cases if the tonsillitis is not settling, antibiotics may prevent the bacterial infection. Only if the cause is a bacterium such as streptococcus, antibiotics are given to cure the infection. If oral antibiotics are used, they must continue for the full course and must not be discontinued after the patient feels comfortable, or the infection will not be cured completely.

Tonsillitis Prevention :-

The bacteria and viruses that cause tonsillitis are easily spread from person to person. Avoiding exposure to anyone who is already suffering from tonsillitis or sore throat can lower the risk of transmission. Drinking glasses and eating utensils should not be shared. Old toothbrushes should be replaced to prevent re infection. People taking care of someone suffering from tonsillitis should wash their hands frequently to prevent spreading the infection to others.

Health Fitness Tips – Rosacea Symptoms, Treatments, Prevention

What is Rosacea?

Rosacea (rose-ay-shah) is a common, long-lasting skin condition that causes inflammation and redness of the face. It usually starts with redness on the cheeks and nose, and also can affect the forehead.

Rosacea affects usually fair-skinned adults between ages 30 and 50 who have "peaches and cream" complexions and a history of blushing easily. Women develop rosacea more often than men, but men are more apt to develop lumpy enlarged noses, a condition called rhinophyma. Rosacea often is mistaken for sunburn, and often goes undiagnosed. It is a very treatable condition.

Rosacea Symptoms :-

There are four progressive stages of rosacea.

(1) First Stage :- Flushing and intermittent facial redness Second stage — Persistent redness on the cheeks, nose, chin or forehead.

(2) Third stage :- Small, pus-colored or red bumps, along with tiny blood vessels that appear as red, thin lines called telangiectasias.

(3) Fourth stage :- Bumps and skin thickening of the nose.

Redness :- Facial skin redness looks like a sunburn or blush. This is caused by flushing, which occurs when excess blood rapidly flows through the skin's blood vessels, and the vessels enlarge to handle this flow. Gradually, this redness becomes more noticeable and does not go away. Facial skin also may become very dry.

Pimples :- Small, red and solid or pus-filled pimples may appear on the face. Because these pimples look like teen-age acne, rosacea has often been nicknamed adult acne or acne rosacea. However, rosacea has different causes than acne, and adults with rosacea do not have the whiteheads or blackheads (called comedones) commonly seen in acne.

Red lines (telangiectasias) :- Facial blushing or flushing causes small blood vessels to expand and eventually to show through the skin. These enlarged blood vessels appear as thin red lines (telangiectasias) on the face, especially on the cheeks. At first, telangiectasias may be hidden by the redness of flushing or blushing, but they usually reappear after this redness fades.

Nasal bumps :- Left untreated, rosacea eventually can create small, knobby bumps on the nose, which make the nose appear swollen. This condition is more common among men and is called rhinophyma.

Eye irritation :- Red, dry eyes develop in about half of patients with rosacea. Eye involvement is usually relatively mild. Rarely, severe involvement of the eyes develops. If untreated, it can affect vision.

Rosacea Prevention :-

There is no way to prevent the rosacea, but the symptoms can be reduced by recognizing these common triggers: hot drinks, alcohol, spicy foods, stress, sunlight, extreme heat or cold. These conditions increase blood flow and cause the small blood vessels in the face to widen (dilate). If you have rosacea, try to identify your particular triggers and either modify them or avoid them entirely.

To cleanse and moisturize your face, you should select facial products that do not burn, sting, irritate or cause redness when they are applied. You should wash your face with lukewarm water and a mild soap, using your fingertips to apply the soap gently. You should avoid toners, astringents, scrubs, exfoliating agents and products that contain alcohol or acetone. Hydroxy acids and tretinoin (for example, Retin A) may sensitize the skin to sun, and can worsen rosacea.

Sunscreens and sun blockers should be used regularly and liberally to protect the face. Use sunscreens with SPF factor of 15 or higher. If chemical sunscreens cause stinging, switch to physical sun blocks, which contain titanium or zinc oxide.

Rosacea Treatment :-

Antibiotics :- Topical metronidazole cream or gel (Metro Cream, Metro Gel) is the most frequently prescribed first-line therapy. Other topical antibiotics also may be effective.

Tetracycline and tetracycline derivatives, such as doxycycline, are drugs taken by mouth once or twice per day. They are sold under several brand names. Improvement is usually noticeable within the first two months after beginning treatment.

Azelaic acid (Finacea) :- It is a gel containing dicarboxylic acid, and is used for the inflammatory pimples of mild to moderate rosacea.

Beta-blockers and alpha antagonists :- These medications may reduce flushing through their effect on blood vessels.

Propranolol (Inderal) and nadolol (Corgard) are beta-blockers and clonidine (Catapres) is an alpha antagonist. The use of these drugs for rosacea is off-label, meaning that the FDA has not approved their use for rosacea.

Beta-blockers usually are used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease. Clonidine was developed to treat high blood pressure, but also is used to decrease hot flashes in menopause.

Estrogen :- This female hormone is used when rosacea is aggravated by the hot flashes of menopause. The smallest dose of estrogen that controls menopausal symptoms should be used, then the hormone should be stopped when hot flashes no longer occur.

Laser treatment :- This is used to get rid of dilated blood vessels or to remove excess nose tissue.

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